In general massage the whole body is massaged, and in localized massage, the face, extremities, abdomen, and so forth. The principal techniques are stroking, rubbing, kneading, and vibration. Stroking—slow rhythmic massage with one or both hands in the direction of the blood flow—begins and ends the massage and is used after each of the other techniques. Rubbing, a more energetic procedure than stroking, is performed with the fingers, the whole palm, or the base or edge of the palm of one or both hands, moving longitudinally, transversely, circularly, or in zigzags or spirals. Kneading, in which one or both hands move longitudinally, transversely, semicircularly, or spirally, is used primarily on muscle tissue. Vibration includes intermittent pummeling or chopping and vibration proper (oscillatory movements made without removing the hands from the working area). It may also be done with equipment, such as the vibrating chair and the Velotrab (for general vibration) and a portable apparatus with a set of Vibratods or an apparatus for pulsating massage (for localized treatment).
Swedish massage is often selected as a way to promote relaxation and release stress, as a way to loosen muscles or to ease pain in a specific area. Deep tissue massage is often used to address deeper and longer-term pains and health challenges. For example, if you were in a serious car accident as a child and suffered severe whiplash, you may have residual problems, even as an adult. Deep tissue massage can work to relieve that long-term neck pain. Or, if you had a bad knee from playing soccer for years and still have stiffness, deep tissue massage can release some of that scar tissue and allow more freedom of movement in your joints. But you don't have to live with pain for years to enjoy the benefits of deep tissue massage. If you have a desk job and spend a lot of time hunched over a computer, deep tissue massage can prevent future back and neck pain. Whatever your reason for seeking out this form of healing treatment, if you have any existing health concerns, always talk with your health care provider before introducing deep tissue massage into your care routine.
Pain management. If you have a condition like sciatica or osteoarthritis and are suffering from chronic pain as a result, Swedish massage can be an effective method for managing that pain in a natural way. Notify your massage therapist about your pain points, he or she can target those areas and use a stroking motion to improve local circulation and reduce muscle tension.
Lomilomi is the traditional massage of Hawaii. As an indigenous practice, it varies by island and by family. The word lomilomi also is used for massage in Samoa and East Futuna. In Samoa, it is also known as lolomi and milimili. In East Futuna, it is also called milimili, fakasolosolo, amoamo, lusilusi, kinikini, fai’ua. The Māori call it romiromi and mirimiri. In Tonga massage is fotofota, tolotolo, and amoamo. In Tahiti it is rumirumi. On Nanumea in Tuvalu, massage is known as popo, pressure application is kukumi, and heat application is tutu. Massage has also been documented in Tikopia in the Solomon Islands, in Rarotonga and in Pukapuka in Western Samoa.[46]
One of the most commonly taught and well-known massage techniques, Swedish massage is a vigorous system of treatment designed to energize the body by stimulating circulation. Five basic strokes, all flowing toward the heart, are used to manipulate the soft tissues of the body. The disrobed client is covered by a sheet, with only the area being worked on exposed.

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Deep tissue and trigger point massages are very similar. The difference is that deep tissue massage uses various traditional massage techniques to work the tissue, whereas trigger point massage is literally looking to manipulate or press on that one point that relieves tension in an entire area (perhaps not even nearby). For both, consider this contraption, which is an invaluable tool for torturing soothing sore muscles all over your body. This is a great guide on doing trigger point therapy for yourself.

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The primary goal of deep tissue massage is to reduce pain and discomfort, while improving the body’s ability to heal itself. Deep tissue massages are not only relaxing — they also help “lengthen and release muscles” that frequently feel tense and get stuck in uncomfortable holding patterns. (1) Let’s explore what, exactly, deep tissue massage is and all the ways it can benefit your body and mind.

Deep tissue massage is best for giving attention to certain painful, stiff "trouble spots" in your body. The massage therapist uses slow, deliberate strokes that focus pressure on layers of muscles, tendons, or other tissues deep under your skin. Though less rhythmic than other types of massage, deep tissue massage may be therapeutic -- relieving chronic patterns of tension and helping with muscle injuries, such as back sprain.
Even casual runners, joggers, and fitness enthusiasts can benefit from a sports massage – it’s not just for people who compete. Because sports massages center on specific areas, anyone who lives in active lifestyle can benefit from the occasional sports massage. You don’t even necessarily need to have a sports injury. Regular sports massages can help reduce the potential for sports injuries by tending to the affected muscles before they’ve been worked past their limits. You’ll experience better flexibility and greater endurance the next time you set yourself in motion.

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Until better evidence is published in peer reviewed journals, he remains skeptical of claims that by massaging or applying pressure to specific points on the hands or feet, a reflexologist can alleviate problems in corresponding organs or other systems throughout the body. He has seen no evidence showing that reflexology is effective for pain or any health problems unrelated to the feet and hands. He urges caution with regard to claims that reflexology can cleanse the body of toxins, increase circulation, promote weight loss, or successfully treat earaches, hemorrhoids, emphysema, heart disease, thyroid disorders or any other health condition.
For example, I worked on the Indiana Sports Massage Team starting in 1989, as well as the NCAA Swimming & Diving Championships and National Championships. I coordinated massage for the 1992 Olympic Trials and was on the 1996 Olympic Massage Team for the Atlanta Olympics—the first time massage therapy was part of the medical staff for the Olympics. These were all volunteer positions, but I loved it!
Depending on the severity of the issue you’re trying to address, you may find that you feel a whole lot better after your first visit—with increased flexibility and blood flow. Still, if you are attempting to resolve a chronic condition, injury, or a condition such as extreme muscular adhesions, you may have to have a few treatments before you begin to feel well. Make sure you discuss how you feel and follow your therapist’s recommendations before and after every visit!
Swedish massage is defined by four or five (somewhat familiar) techniques, which have French names: effleurage (stroking), petrissage (kneading), tapotement (rhythmic choppings), and friction (rubbing). Some therapists now incorporate advanced techniques that have rehabilitating effects and stretches for improving your range of motion. But the ulti Show more
In Sweden, "Swedish massage" is simply known as "classic massage". And that is exactly what it is -- a classic treatment which represents the western standard for massage.  The five main techniques used in Swedish massage -- stroking and gliding; kneading; rubbing; tapping or pounding; vibration -- are probably what spring to mind when you think about a "typical" massage.
When you get off the table, your calves may be screaming at you, but don’t get upset and run home to your foam roller, says Denunzio. Soreness is normal and can even help reveal areas of weakness that should receive future attention. Within 48 hours, the tightness should dissipate, and if the massage was administered correctly, you may even feel like you’re in a new body.
Traditionally designed to apply pressure to layers of muscle, tendons and other tissues deep under the skin, deep tissue massage can be very effective in relieving problem areas and is highly therapeutic. Deep tissue massage is generally a modality to consider for athletes as well as the eight-to-five desk job. Muscles easily become tense and deep tissue massage can relieve some chronic patterns of pain and tension, specifically in the back, shoulder and neck areas.  
In this particular study, published in Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, therapeutic massage included techniques of tapping and friction, while DTM used “oblique pressure and a combination of lengthening and cross-fiber strokes.” All sessions were 30 minutes long and preformed daily, and all participants did not receive any other treatments during the course of the study. After 10 days, participants treated with DTM reported significant improvements in pain (lower back pain in this case) compared to those treated with therapeutic massage, based on scores using the Modified Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index, Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale and Visual Analog Scales. (4)
Most of our clients are interested in deep tissue massage, and that makes sense because it is a great way to manage pain. Deep tissue massage—as well as the other therapeutic massage methods—can give you a lot of relief from chronic pain. Many of our clients come in for frozen shoulder treatment and neck pain—two side effects of working on computers all day.
Decision-making skills: Your clients might not exactly know what they want from a session. They may not know what technique they want to be performed or might not be aware of the location of their pain. Professional massage therapists should help their clients by helping determine what massage will help improve their physical condition. This is where your training comes in. Good decision-making skills can come in handy when determining the best type of therapy for a client.

Swedish massage is given to increase blood circulation, easing the tension in the body’s muscles and improving the muscles’ flexibility. It stimulates the skin as well as the nervous system to soothe the nerves, reducing both emotional and physical stress. In fact the massage is a staple in most stress management programs. A Swedish massage is given to help with increasing the flow of oxygen in the blood, releasing toxins from the body’s muscles flushing the lactic acids, uric acids, and other type of metabolic wastes out of the body tissues. It can really shorten the recovery time for a muscular strain!!
Post-event sports massage is given after a competition and is mainly concerned with recovery. It is geared toward reducing the muscle spasms and metabolic build-up that occur with vigorous exercise. Recovery after competition involves not only tissue normalization and repair, but also general relaxation and mental calming. A recovery session might be 15 minutes to 11/2 hours in length. Post-event sports massage is given after a competition and is mainly concerned with recovery. It is geared toward reducing the muscle spasms and metabolic build-up that occur with vigorous exercise. Recovery after competition involves not only tissue normalization and repair, but also general relaxation and mental calming. A recovery session might be 15 minutes to 11/2 hours in length. 
Enhance your Swedish massage with psammo therapy, the ancient art of heated sand. The gentle and deeply affecting warmth of the Bavarian quartz and Persian salt provides physical and mental relaxation while stimulating the metabolism. It also has a purifying effect. This service is beneficial for arthritis, fibromyalgia and muscle and joint pain. It also aids sleep.

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Aspects of sports massage therapy are gaining popularity as useful components in a balanced training regimen. Sports massage therapy can be used as a means to enhance pre-event preparation and reduce recovery time for maximum performance during training or after an event. Athletes have discovered that specially designed sports massage promotes flexibility, reduces fatigue, improves endurance, helps prevent injuries and prepares their body and mind for optimal performance.

It’s important to be open with your massage therapist about the level of pressure and discomfort you wish to endure. This may be different for certain areas and throughout the massage, feel free to communicate with your massage therapist before and during the massage. Some massage therapists find pain to be counterproductive to the process and expect you to speak up if the pain is too much.


No one really knows how a painful massage can also feel so good at the same time. This is a sensory phenomenon mostly beyond the reach of science — not entirely14 — all we can do is speculate. A main question is whether good pain is good because we expect relief to follow pain, or because positive and negative qualities are being produced simultaneously. My bet is on the latter.

Deep tissue and trigger point massages are very similar. The difference is that deep tissue massage uses various traditional massage techniques to work the tissue, whereas trigger point massage is literally looking to manipulate or press on that one point that relieves tension in an entire area (perhaps not even nearby). For both, consider this contraption, which is an invaluable tool for torturing soothing sore muscles all over your body. This is a great guide on doing trigger point therapy for yourself.
Most deep tissue massages normally focus on major muscle groups — such as the neck or lower back — along with joints and tendons that are susceptible to straining or injuries. Certain areas of the body that tend to tense up in times of stress, including the shoulders, neck and hips, can often benefit the most from this type of deep manipulation. Many people consider “sports massages” to be a form of deep tissue massage, which involves physical treatment primarily to neuromusculoskeletal systems to treat pain and disability, improve muscle recovery and joint mobilization, and prevent injuries.

Massage has a multifaceted effect on the body and evokes complex reactions involving all the tissues, organs, and systems. It improves the movement of lymph and blood in the vessels and tones the vascular system, facilitating the work of the heart. The hemoglobin content of the blood and the erythrocyte and leukocyte counts are raised. Massage increases gas exchange and the excretion of mineral salts, urea, and uric acid. Changing the character, force, and duration of the massage can affect the functional state of the cerebral cortex by lowering or raising general excitability, intensifying attenuated reflexes and reviving lost ones, improving the function of conduction tracts, and reinforcing the reflex links of the cerebral cortex with the muscles, vessels, and internal organs. Massage can accelerate the regeneration of a nerve after injury and relieve or stop pain.


Labor pain has been described as one of the most intense pains a human being can endure. Studies have supported the claim that massage therapy can be an effective way to reduce labor pain during pregnancy. Women who received massage therapy reported decreased depression, anxiety, and leg and back pain. It was also found that the rate of prematurity was lower and labors durations were on average 3 hours shorter with less need for medication.6
At certain times during the massage, you may feel some discomfort or even some pain as the massage therapist works on areas where there are adhesions or scar tissue. Pain isn't necessarily good, and it's not a sign that the massage will be effective. In fact, your body may tense up in response to pain, making it harder for the therapist to reach deeper muscles.

Ugly pain in massage therapy is, by my definition, never okay. Ugly pain is often caused by things that are not going to offer even minimal, delayed benefits, and may even be dangerous. It’s important to be able to spot ugly pain for what it is and completely eliminate it from any therapy you’re receiving. What kinds of handling may cause “ugly” pain?
Deep tissue massage is a type of massage that aims at affecting the deeper tissue structure of the muscles. It also affects the connective tissue, known as fascia. Deep tissue massage helps with both small muscle injuries as well as chronic problems. Deep tissue massage is an excellent way to deal with a whiplash or sports injury, postural misalignment, treating spasms as well as muscle tension. During a deep tissue massage the therapist concentrates on releasing specific chronic muscle tension as well as the muscular knots, or adhesions.
Some possible justifications for painfully intense massage (these aren’t endorsements) include the destruction of motor end plates to “de-activate” trigger points; somatoemotional release (pain often strongly “resonates” with strong emotions like grief); moving tissue fluids; or just creating a strong, novel sensory experiences (which may have many subtle benefits).

Swedish massage helps the body heal itself by physically manipulating and stimulating the body’s circulatory and lymphatic systems. This works to energize and help eliminate toxins in the body. Also, through Swedish massage, a high level of relaxation can often be achieved, and this relaxation can help prepare the body to act as an open, receptive vessel in which healing can more rapidly occur.

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